Color fastness is the ability of fabrics to resist their fading or staining of other fibrous materials that come into contact with it. Depending on the strength of the dyes and the strong or weak fibers, the color fastness of the dyes against the fabric will be high or low, respectively.
For example:

– The link between cellulose (Cotton) and reactive dyes (or Reactive dyes) is covalent, very durable (Covalent bond). Therefore, the color fastness of this fabric is very high.

– Or the link between cotton fabric and direct dyes is the Hidro bond and Van der Waals adsorption force, which has weak durability, so the color fastness of this fabric is very weak. In many cases of dark or medium dark colors, it is necessary to resort to the effect of fixing agent, which is acceptable in durability.

– Or the dye dyes used to dye polyester fibers, dye molecules with high dispersion will diffuse deeply into the fibrous capillaries are in a state of enlargement at high temperature conditions. When cooling down, the fibrous capillary shrinks, holding tightly the dye cabinets. Just by washing the dye off the fiber surface, the color fastness of the fabric is very good.

The mechanism and technology of dyeing textile materials with different dyes, will be discussed in detail later in the dyeing and printing technology articles.

Possible causes of color fastness are:

The fibers and dyes used must be compatible with the aforementioned.
Pre-treatment technology process and dyeing technique.
The intensity of the dye is dark or light …
Technical support role is complete.
The ability to resist fading or staining of fabrics on other materials in contact with laundry, is called washing fastness. Or Color fastness to wash.

Test method to evaluate washing durability:

The most popular method of washing durability test is ABCCJ BD

In this method, a fabric sample to be assessed for washing fastness of 2 inches x 6 inches, sewn with a Multifiber test cloth, is a standard fabric manufactured and used for color fastness testing. It consists of cloth bands of different materials including Acetate, Cotton, Nylon, Polyester, Acrylate and Wool (Wool), which are woven in succession with 0.5 inche tapes of each type. This test sample and multifiber fabric are washed in a steel beaker containing 150 ml of distilled water, with 0.225 grs of standard soap, and 50 steel balls. The sample is washed by spinning this steel beaker in warm water at 49 degrees C for 45 minutes.

After that, the sample was washed 3 times in a cup with clean water, blotted out with absorbent paper, then dried in an oven at 70 degrees Celsius. Return moisture to standard conditions 4 hours prior to evaluation, then report results

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