Puzzing and pilling is the phenomenon where one or more fibers appear on the fabric surface. These fibers can be tangled together to form particles on the fabric surface, causing the surface of the fabric to be unsightly. These fibers are formed by the friction process and characteristics of the composition, fiber structure, weaving style and conditions of care and preservation of clothing.
1) Fiber content:
Depending on the fiber composition of the fabric, the likelihood of clotting on the fabric surface will vary. The fiber composition may be natural such as cotton, linen, wool and silk, or synthetic fibers such as acrylic, polyester, lycra and others) or blends (for example, cotton-polyester or wool- acrylic ).
Some fibers tend to be more susceptible to lathering than others. As a general rule, for natural fibers this trend is less than synthetic fiber. Generally, natural fibers have a shorter fiber length and lower strength than synthetic fibers. As a result, when lumps form on the fabric surface, these lumps are easily broken off and removed on the lint surface before pilling is formed. Fabrics made from synthetic fibers do not have this capability because of the strong fibers and the regular fiber lengths sufficient to hold these fibers on the fabric surface causing pilling of the synthetic fibers.
Blended fibers tend to produce more hairiness and lather than pure materials.
Big number yarns tend to be slightly ruffled than strong yarns.
Increased twist makes the yarn more tightly bound in the yarn and thus reduces the tendency of ruffling and pilling.
Fibers with a flat, round, smooth shape tend to produce more pilling.
Synthetic or hydrophobic fibers (hidrophilic) tend to produce more pilling than natural fibers.
Fiber length: The short fiber length is a cause of ruffling and lathering on the fabric. The short fiber length, the less number of twisted clinging to the yarn, easy to peel off, causing hairiness.
2) Fabric structure:
Knits tend to be ruffled and pilling more than woven fabrics. The reason is that knitted fabric tends to be more prone to friction than the woven fabric.
As they are known, woven fabric is the structure of a system of loops, while woven fabric is a flat alternating combination of weft and warp systems. Therefore, the surface structure of knitted fabric is always more bulky and rough than woven fabric. Therefore, knitted fabrics are always affected by the friction of washing, tumble drying and the wearer’s activities more than woven fabrics with the same fiber composition.
3) Washing, drying and storage using process:
Washing and drying are always the major friction causes of ruffling and lathering on fabric surfaces. Knitted garments are always instructed to use the dry-cleaning laundry in a condition that is softer and more delicated than woven clothes.
4) Measures to reduce the tendency of ruffling and fraying on the fabric:
Burning (Singeing) on cotton to alleviate the tendency to fluff.
Heat treatment at high temperatures during proper periods alleviates this trend of fabrics.
For Polyester / Cotton fabrics, heat treatment at low temperatures and long heat retention can be used to increase resistance to ruffling.
Select suitable spinning materials.
The spinning process is appropriate, taking into account the later shearing resistance of yarns and fabrics.
Fabric design with the right parameters.
Using complete technical measures such as hair burning, or bio-enzyme hair removal treatment …
5) Assess the degree of resistance to fuzing and pilling tendencies of fabric:
The degree of pilling of a fabric is assessed by comparing the test samples with visual comparison standards, which can be fabrics with a pilling level considered as a comparison standard or an actual picture of the fabric for see resistance to pilling of fabric. Pilling resistance is observed and rated on 5 levels ranging from 5 (no pilling) to 1 (very serious pilling level).
This test method is applicable to various woven and knitted fabrics in terms of pilling tendency due to variations in fabric, yarn and fabric texture, and finishing.
The ruffling and flaking on the fabric surface can be overcome by appropriate measures from the yarn production, fabric production and finishing stages.